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Location General Staff and Contact Data download Geology an soil
Vegetation Climate Measurements Facilities References



The Svartberget site (64°15′N, 19°46′E, 270 m asl) is located about 60 km west of Umeå. 



The Svartberget site is located in the Svartberget Experimental Forest. The experimental forest covers 1076 ha of boreal forest land and governs a manifold of research activities since 1923. A reference monitoring program of climate and water is active since 1980.

The site was established for ICOS Sweden in 2011 and hosts a Class 2 combined ecosystem and Class 1 atmospheric station. 

blue arrowMaps and images

blue arrowICOScapes presenting Svartberget

Staff and Contact

  • Ecosystem station PI: Matthias Peichl
  • Atmosphere station PI: Paul Smith



Data download

Data from Svartberget can be downloaded from the ICOS Carbon Portal. ICOS Level2 data from the Atmosphere Station (GHG concentrations, air temperature, wind). ICOS Level2 data from the Ecosystem Station (flux data, meteorological data, soil meteorological variables, ancillary data). ICOS Level 1 Near Realtime Data


Geology and Soil

The bedrock consists almost entirely of gneiss. The dominating soil type is moraine of various thicknesses.



The Svartberget site is situated on a slope in a 100 years old mixed forest with 60% Scots pine Pinus sylvestris and 40% Norway spruce Picea abies. Tree height close to the tower is about 20m.

overstory species composition (last inventory: 2018)
species trees/ha percentage Basal Area (m2/ha)
all trees 1062.5 100 29.322
Picea Abies L. 535.4 68.2 12.701
Pinus sylvestris L. 414.7 19.9 14.029
Betula pendula Roth. 111.7 11.9 2.589
Sorbus aucuparia L. 0.7   0.002


main tree species characteristics (last inventory: 2018)
species DBH1 (cm) standard deviation (DBH) (cm) height (m) standard deviation (height) (m)
all trees 16.97 7.96 13.5 5.89
Picea abies L. 15.49 7.89 12.66 5.88
Pinus sylvestris L. 19.36 7.48 14.72 5.70
Betula pendula Roth 15.29 7.83 13.07 5.86

1DBH: measured at 1.3 m, minimum diameter: 5 cm


overstory Plant area index2
date mean PAI (m2/m2) standard deviation (m2/m2) clumping factor
2019 Jun 3.59 0 0.892
Jul 3.29 0.25 0.911
Sep 3.5 0.02 0.903
2020 Jul 3.25 0.42 0.89

2approach: 9 DHP pictures were taken in each of 3 continuous plots . LAI was calculated at each location (9 per plot) and averaged per plot. Only QC checked pictures were included. For each CP 7 or more pictures should be suitable to include plot in aggregation.


Foliar analyses
parameter species 2017 2018 2019 2020
Ca (g/kg) Picea abies L. 7.81 9.39 6.69 6.55
Pinus sylvestris L. 3.67 3.76 3.29 2.95
Cu (mg/kg) Picea abies L. 1.41 1.36 1.64 1.10
Pinus sylvestris L. 2.11 2.60 2.52 2.38
Fe (mg/kg) Picea abies L. 14.083 16.505 13.857 15.24
Pinus sylvestris L. 14.03 18.14 19.16
Mg (g/kg) Picea abies L. 0.93 0.95 0.94 0.94
Pinus sylvestris L. 0.74 0.74 0.68 0.71
Mn (mg/kg) Picea abies L. 439.9 642.2 362.8 418.8
Pinus sylvestris L. 132.4 217.5 211.1 186.4
C (g/kg) Picea abies L. 510.0 512.7 512.8 514.4
Pinus sylvestris L. 532.1 540.0 535.4 533.9
N (g/kg) Picea abies L. 9.62 10.46 10.20 9.77
Pinus sylvestris L. 12.14 12.68 12.41 12.27
P (g/kg) Picea abies L. 1.21 1.26 1.31 1.36
Pinus sylvestris L. 1.26 1.28 1.33 1.37
K (g/kg) Picea abies L. 4.99 5.62 6.31 6.32
Pinus sylvestris L. 5.12 5.19 5.83 6.17
Zn (mg/kg) Picea abies L. 48.6 53.1 42.8 47.4
Pinus sylvestris L. 46.0 49.1 45.4 44.26



The cold humid climate type of the site is attributed by relatively short summer (the growing season is 150 days/year) and permanent snow cover during winter (170 days/year). The mean annual air temperature is 1.8°C and annual precipitation sums up to 614 mm (data period 1981-2010).

Data for the 1961-1990 climatological normal from the close by SMHI station Vindeln characterizes the climate as a Dfc-climate (after Köppen), i.e. humid subarctic with cold summers and cold winters.

climate diagram Svartberget



The measurements are carried out either on the 150 m high tower, at the earth surface, in the four soil pits or on the four trees. All measurements are carried out within a distance of about 200 m of the tower.

blue arrowMeasured variables


Non-ICOS measurements

The ICOS site is located in the heart of Krycklan catchment area, in the centre of a well investigated sub-catchment with long-term hydrological measurement. 



  • Chi, J., M.B. Nilsson, H. Laudon, A. Lindroth, J. Wallerman, J. Fransson, N. Kljun, T. Lundmark, M. Ottosson Löfvenius, and M. Peichl, 2020. The Net Landscape Carbon Balance – integrating terrestrial and aquatic carbon fluxes in a managed boreal forest landscape in Sweden. Global Change Biology, 26: 2353-2367
  • Laudon, H.,  E. Maher-Hasselquist, M. Peichl, K. Lindgren, R. Sponseller, F. Lidman, L. Kuglerová, N. J. Hasselquist, K. Bishop. M.B. Nilsson, A. M. Ågren. 2021. Northern landscapes in transition: evidence, approach and ways forward using the Krycklan Catchment Study. Hydrological Processes (in press),

Photo: Peder Sanfridson Blomquist



SVB footprint
Footprint area for July 2014 in Svartberget. Each contour line adds 10% contribution starting at the tower (red dot); the background map is an illustration of the vegetation height; Footprint model FFP (Kljun et al. 2015).