|Location||General||Staff and Contact||Data download||Geology an soil|
The Svartberget site (64°15′N, 19°46′E, 270 m asl) is located about 60 km west of Umeå.
The Svartberget site is located in the Svartberget Experimental Forest. The experimental forest covers 1076 ha of boreal forest land and governs a manifold of research activities since 1923. A reference monitoring program of climate and water is active since 1980.
The site was established for ICOS Sweden in 2011 and hosts a Class 2 combined ecosystem and Class 1 atmospheric station.
Staff and Contact
- Ecosystem station PI: Matthias Peichl, Co-PI: Mats Nilsson
- Atmosphere station PI: Paul Smith
Data from Svartberget can be downloaded from the ICOS Carbon Portal. ICOS Level2 data from the Atmosphere Station SVB (GHG concentrations, air temperature, wind). ICOS Level2 data from the Ecosystem Station SE-Svb (flux data, meteorological data, soil meteorological variables, ancillary data). ICOS Level 1 Near Realtime Data
Geology and Soil
The bedrock consists almost entirely of gneiss. The dominating soil type is moraine of various thicknesses.
The Svartberget site is situated on a slope in a 100 years old mixed forest with 60% Scots pine Pinus sylvestris and 40% Norway spruce Picea abies. Tree height close to the tower is about 20m.
overstory species composition (last inventory: 2018)
|species||trees/ha||percentage||Basal Area (m2/ha)|
|Picea Abies L.||535.4||68.2||12.701|
|Pinus sylvestris L.||414.7||19.9||14.029|
|Betula pendula Roth.||111.7||11.9||2.589|
|Sorbus aucuparia L.||0.7||0.002|
main tree species characteristics (last inventory: 2019)
|species||DBH1 (cm)||standard deviation (DBH)(cm)||height2 (m)|
|all trees||16.97||7.96||22.4 (SP), 19.9 (CP)|
|Picea abies L.||15.49||7.89||22.6 (SP), 18.4 (CP)|
|Pinus sylvestris L.||19.36||7.48||22.5 (SP), 22.0 (CP)|
|Betula pendula Roth||15.29||7.83||22.2 (SP), 19.2 (CP)|
1DBH: measured at 1.3 m, minimum diameter: 5 cm
2height: arithmetic men of the 10% tallest trees
overstory GREEN area index2
|date||mean GAI (m2/m2)||standard deviation (m2/m2)||clumping factor|
2approach: 9 DHP pictures were taken in each of 3 continuous plots . LAI was calculated at each location (9 per plot) and averaged per plot. Only QC checked pictures were included. For each CP 7 or more pictures should be suitable to include plot in aggregation.
|Ca (g/kg)||Picea abies L.||7.81||9.39||6.69||6.55||7.28|
|Pinus sylvestris L.||3.67||3.76||3.29||2.95||3.30|
|Cu (mg/kg)||Picea abies L.||1.41||1.36||1.64||1.10||1.15|
|Pinus sylvestris L.||2.11||2.60||2.52||2.38||1.98|
|Fe (mg/kg)||Picea abies L.||14.083||16.505||13.857||15.24||9.28|
|Pinus sylvestris L.||14.03||18.14||19.16||(19.77)||16.86|
|Mg (g/kg)||Picea abies L.||0.93||0.95||0.94||0.94||0.92|
|Pinus sylvestris L.||0.74||0.74||0.68||0.71||0.69|
|Mn (mg/kg)||Picea abies L.||439.9||642.2||362.8||418.8||405.9|
|Pinus sylvestris L.||132.4||217.5||211.1||186.4||190.1|
|C (g/kg)||Picea abies L.||510.0||512.7||512.8||514.4||516.1|
|Pinus sylvestris L.||532.1||540.0||535.4||533.9||535.3|
|N (g/kg)||Picea abies L.||9.62||10.46||10.20||9.77||10.31|
|Pinus sylvestris L.||12.14||12.68||12.41||12.27||12.37|
|P (g/kg)||Picea abies L.||1.21||1.26||1.31||1.36||1.27|
|Pinus sylvestris L.||1.26||1.28||1.33||1.37||1.25|
|K (g/kg)||Picea abies L.||4.99||5.62||6.31||6.32||5.69|
|Pinus sylvestris L.||5.12||5.19||5.83||6.17||5.54|
|Zn (mg/kg)||Picea abies L.||48.6||53.1||42.8||47.4||44.3|
|Pinus sylvestris L.||46.0||49.1||45.4||44.26||40.79|
The cold humid climate type of the site is attributed by relatively short summer (the growing season is 150 days/year) and permanent snow cover during winter (170 days/year). The mean annual air temperature is 1.8°C and annual precipitation sums up to 614 mm (data period 1981-2010).
Data for the 1961-1990 climatological normal from the close by SMHI station Vindeln characterizes the climate as a Dfc-climate (after Köppen), i.e. humid subarctic with cold summers and cold winters.
The measurements are carried out either on the 150 m high tower, at the earth surface, in the four soil pits or on the four trees. All measurements are carried out within a distance of about 200 m of the tower.
The ICOS site is located in the heart of Krycklan catchment area, in the centre of a well investigated sub-catchment with long-term hydrological measurement. The research site Svartberget is part of the Swedish national infrastructure SITES, which will also host an ACTRIS Sweden site in future.
- Chi, J., M.B. Nilsson, H. Laudon, A. Lindroth, J. Wallerman, J. Fransson, N. Kljun, T. Lundmark, M. Ottosson Löfvenius, and M. Peichl, 2020. The Net Landscape Carbon Balance – integrating terrestrial and aquatic carbon fluxes in a managed boreal forest landscape in Sweden. Global Change Biology, 26: 2353-2367
- Laudon, H., E. Maher-Hasselquist, M. Peichl, K. Lindgren, R. Sponseller, F. Lidman, L. Kuglerová, N. J. Hasselquist, K. Bishop. M.B. Nilsson, A. M. Ågren. 2021. Northern landscapes in transition: evidence, approach and ways forward using the Krycklan Catchment Study. Hydrological Processes (in press), https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.14170