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LocationGeneralStaff and ContactData downloadGeology an soil
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The Svartberget site (64°15′N, 19°46′E, 270 m asl) is located about 60 km west of Umeå. 


The Svartberget site is located in the Svartberget Experimental Forest. The experimental forest covers 1076 ha of boreal forest land and governs a manifold of research activities since 1923. A reference monitoring program of climate and water is active since 1980.

The site was established for ICOS Sweden in 2011 and hosts a Class 2 combined Ecosystem and Class 1 Atmosphere station. 

The research site which is co-located with the national infrastructures SITES and ACTRIS Sweden. The ACTRIS activities at Svartberget are operated by SLU.

blue arrowMaps and images

blue arrowICOScapes presenting Svartberget

Staff and Contact

contact: svartberget@icos-sweden.se

Data download

Data from Svartberget can be downloaded from the ICOS Carbon Portal.

ICOS Level2 data from the Atmosphere Station SVB (GHG concentrations, air temperature, wind).

ICOS Level2 data from the Ecosystem Station SE-Svb (flux data, meteorological data, soil meteorological variables, ancillary data).

ICOS Level 1 Near Realtime Data

Data gathered through the SITES RI: Svartberget,Krycklan

Geology and Soil

The bedrock consists almost entirely of gneiss. The dominating soil type is moraine of various thicknesses.


The Svartberget site is situated on a slope in a 100 years old mixed forest with 60% Scots pine Pinus sylvestris and 40% Norway spruce Picea abies. Tree height close to the tower is about 20m.

overstory species composition (last inventory: 2018)
speciestrees/hapercentageBasal Area (m2/ha)
all trees1062.510029.322
Picea Abies L.535.468.212.701
Pinus sylvestris L.414.719.914.029
Betula pendula Roth.111.711.92.589
Sorbus aucuparia L.0.7 0.002


main tree species characteristics (last inventory: 2019)
speciesDBH1 (cm)standard deviation (DBH)(cm)height2 (m)
all trees16.977.9622.4 (SP), 19.9 (CP)
Picea abies L.15.497.8922.6 (SP), 18.4 (CP)
Pinus sylvestris L.19.367.4822.5 (SP), 22.0 (CP)
Betula pendula Roth15.297.8322.2 (SP), 19.2 (CP)

1DBH: measured at 1.3 m, minimum diameter: 5 cm

2height: arithmetic men of the 10% tallest trees


overstory GREEN area index2
datemean GAI (m2/m2)standard deviation (m2/m2)clumping factor
2019Jun, 203.5900.892
Sep, 83.670.550.882
Sep, 213.610.450.900

2approach: 9 DHP pictures were taken in each of 3 continuous plots . LAI was calculated at each location (9 per plot) and averaged per plot. Only QC checked pictures were included. For each CP 7 or more pictures should be suitable to include plot in aggregation.


Foliar analyses
concentration in sample dried at 65°C dry mass ratio: (dry mass at 103 °C) / (dry mass at 65 °C)
Ca (g/kg)Picea abies L.7.819.396.696.557.288.429.04
Pinus sylvestris L.3.673.763.292.953.304.014.01
Cu (mg/kg)Picea abies L.1.411.361.641.101.151.441.44
Pinus sylvestris L.2.112.602.522.381.982.332.51
Fe (mg/kg)Picea abies L.14.08316.50513.85715.249.2811.8615.42
Pinus sylvestris L.14.0318.1419.16(19.77)16.8617.6221.49
Mg (g/kg)Picea abies L.0.930.950.940.940.921.181.09
Pinus sylvestris L.0.740.740.680.710.690.720.75
Mn (mg/kg)Picea abies L.439.9642.2362.8418.8405.9439.6561.8
Pinus sylvestris L.132.4217.5211.1186.4190.1138.4213.19
C (g/kg)Picea abies L.510.0512.7512.8514.4516.1510.8507.3
Pinus sylvestris L.532.1540.0535.4533.9535.3535.3533.4
N (g/kg)Picea abies L.9.6210.4610.209.7710.3110.2110.34
Pinus sylvestris L.12.1412.6812.4112.2712.3712.2613.4
P (g/kg)Picea abies L.
Pinus sylvestris L.
K (g/kg)Picea abies L.4.995.626.316.325.695.675.73
Pinus sylvestris L.
Zn (mg/kg)Picea abies L.48.653.142.847.444.349.749.31
Pinus sylvestris L.
dry mass ratio (%)Picea abies L.93.6984.2974.7693.6892.9191.5093.44
Pinus sylvestris L.93.8379.0469.4293.6192.5891.2393.20


The cold humid climate type of the site is attributed by relatively short summer (the growing season is 150 days/year) and permanent snow cover during winter (170 days/year). The mean annual air temperature is 1.8°C and annual precipitation sums up to 614 mm (data period 1981-2010). 

Data for the 1961-1990 climatological normal from the close by SMHI station Vindeln characterizes the climate as a Dfc-climate (after Köppen), i.e. humid subarctic with cold summers and cold winters.

climate diagram Svartberget


The measurements are carried out either on the 150 m high tower, at the earth surface, in the four soil pits or on the four trees. All measurements are carried out within a distance of about 200 m of the tower.

Measured Atmosphere station variables

Variables and measurement heights included in the Atmosphere station program at Svartberget are listed on the Atmosphere station introduction page: follow this link to the page

Measured Ecosystem station variables and summary of station parameters

Variables and measurement heights included in the Ecosystem station program at Svartberget are listed on the Ecosystem station introduction page: follow this link to the page

Non-ICOS measurements

The ICOS site is located in the heart of the Krycklan catchment area, in the centre of a well investigated sub-catchment with long-term hydrological measurement. The Krycklan catchment is part of the national research infrastructure SITES and will host an ACTRIS Sweden from 2023 on. It also hosts other complementary measurements from various research projects.
Please, contact the station team for more information.


Check the SLU's webpages on the Krycklan catchment areato get more information on facilities at Svartberget.



  • Chi, J., M.B. Nilsson, H. Laudon, A. Lindroth, J. Wallerman, J. Fransson, N. Kljun, T. Lundmark, M. Ottosson Löfvenius, and M. Peichl, 2020. The Net Landscape Carbon Balance – integrating terrestrial and aquatic carbon fluxes in a managed boreal forest landscape in Sweden. Global Change Biology, 26: 2353-2367
  • Laudon, H.,  E. Maher-Hasselquist, M. Peichl, K. Lindgren, R. Sponseller, F. Lidman, L. Kuglerová, N. J. Hasselquist, K. Bishop. M.B. Nilsson, A. M. Ågren. 2021. Northern landscapes in transition: evidence, approach and ways forward using the Krycklan Catchment Study. Hydrological Processes (in press), https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.14170

Photo: Peder Sanfridson Blomquist



SVB footprint
Footprint area for July 2014 in Svartberget. Each contour line adds 10% contribution starting at the tower (red dot); the background map is an illustration of the vegetation height; Footprint model FFP (Kljun et al. 2015).