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Location General Staff and Contact Data download Geology an soil
Vegetation Climate Measurements Facilities References



The Norunda research station (60°05′N, 17°29′E, 46 m asl) is located about 30 km north of Uppsala, i.e., in the southern part of the boreal forest zone. The area is flat with small-scale variations in altitude (up to 10 m).



The site was established in 1994 and is used for studies of exchanges of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4), energy and water using micrometeorological methods (eddy covariance and gradient). A combined ICOS Class 1 Atmosphere (Nor) and Class 2 Ecosystem (SE-Nor) station is located at Norunda.

blue arrowMaps and images

blue arrowClear cut 2022


Staff and Contact

  • Ecosystem station PI: Meelis Mölder, Co-PI: Natascha Kljun
  • Atmosphere station PI: Meelis Mölder
  • station manager: Irene Lehner


Norunda station team
The Norunda team (from left to right): research engineer Irene Lehner, station principal investigator Meelis Mölder, and research engineer Anders Båth.
Co-PI Natascha Kljun, picture by K Ruona
Co-PI Natascha Kljun.



Data download

Greenhouse gas related data, meteorological data and vegetation data  from Norunda can be downloaded from the ICOS Carbon Portal: ICOS Level2 data from the Atmosphere Station (GHG concentrations, air temperature, wind). ICOS Level2 data from the Ecosystem Station (flux data, meteorological data, soil meteorological variables, ancillary data). ICOS Level 1 Near Realtime Data.


Aerosol data measured at Norunda can be obtained from the ACTRIS data portal




Geology and Soil

The bedrock is characterised by granite and gneiss (incl. leptite) from the Svecokarelian orogen. The soils are sandy-loamy tills with a high content of stones and blocks, characterized as podzolised dystric regosols, with a thin organic layer on top. The area is rich in organic soils with surface peat cover and fens.

Because of the presence of stones and blocks the soil surface is highly uneven.



The site is dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) with a small fraction (10%) of deciduous trees, mainly birch (Betula sp.). The shrub layer is dominated by blueberry, cranberry, moss, and flowers.

The site contains stands of various age and height, but within a 1 km radius, old (110 years) and middle-aged (60-80 years) forest of about 25 m height dominate. Due to thinnings, winter storms, and bark beetle attack (effect will be seen in the 2020 and 2021 data), the plant area index got strongly reduced througout the past years.

overstory species composition (last inventory: 2018)
species trees/ha percentage Basal Area (m2/ha)
all trees 558.1 100 35.262
Picea Abies L. 302.7 54.2 13.328
Pinus sylvestris L. 205.8 36.9 20.457
Betula pubescens L. 34 6.1 0.923
Alnus glutinosa L. 13.4 2.4 0.442
Sorbus aucuparia L. 0.7 0.1 0.003

Betula pendula L.

1.4 0.3 0.11


main tree species characteristics (last inventory: 2018)
species DBH1 (cm) standard deviation (DBH) (cm) height (m) standard deviation (height) (m)
all trees 25.52 12.38 20.76 9.29
Picea abies L. 20.44 11.95 17.24 9.33
Pinus sylvestris L. 34.96 6.56 27.57 3.98
Betula pubescens L. 16.89 7.8 13.31 7.24

1DBH: measured at 1.3 m, minimum diameter: 5 cm


overstory GREEN area index2
date mean GAI (m2/m2) standard deviation (m2/m2) clumping factor
2019 May 2.24 0.24 0.922
Jun 2.76 0.49 0.939
Sep 2.77 0.52 0.935
Nov 2.73 0.53 0.934
2020 Jan 1.01 0.48 0.970
Dec 2.78 0.63 0.932

2approach: 9 DHP pictures were taken in each of 4 continuous plots . LAI was calculated at each location (9 per plot) and averaged per plot. Only QC checked pictures were included. For each CP 7 or more pictures should be suitable to include plot in the aggregation.


Foliar analyses
parameter species 03/2018 01/2019 01/2020 03/2021 03/2022
Ca (g/kg) Picea abies L. 4.766 5.818 6.159 4.54 6.783
Pinus sylvestris L. 2.863 2.950 2.797 2.500 2.668
Cu (mg/kg) Picea abies L. 1.411 1.377 1.863 1.806 1.153
Pinus sylvestris L. 3.616 2.534 2.865 2.814 2.577
Fe (mg/kg) Picea abies L. 7.816 11.827 13.713 36.9* 16.371
Pinus sylvestris L. 20.030 26.135 37.443 64.135 21.074
Mg (g/kg) Picea abies L. 1.134 1.182 1.115 1.038 1.033
Pinus sylvestris L. 0.890 1.081 1.065 1.022 0.996
Mn (mg/kg) Picea abies L. 203.21 290.57 465.86 565.86 727.86
Pinus sylvestris L. 175.74 159.17 238.17 198.91 177.61
C (g/kg) Picea abies L. 510.57 511.00 505.29 671.86 498.71
Pinus sylvestris L. 526.48 532.22 520.91 694.09 521.57
N (g/kg) Picea abies L. 9.901 10.464 10.516 13.886 10.699
Pinus sylvestris L. 13.665 14.109 14.904 19.165 12.709
P (g/kg) Picea abies L. 1.257 1.351 1.305 1.420 1.346
Pinus sylvestris L. 1.392 1.558 1.607 1.592 1.498
K (g/kg) Picea abies L. 5.581 5.974 5.821 6.834 5.431
Pinus sylvestris L. 5.504 6.056 6.209 6.424 6.058
Zn (mg/kg) Picea abies L. 31.89 30.26 52.03 51.33 42.61
Pinus sylvestris L. 35.448 31.387 40.026 39.996 33.191

*tree ID 272: Fe=7330 mg/kg



With a mean annual air temperature of 7.1°C and a mean annual precipitation of 556 mm (data period 1991-2020, SMHI station Uppsala Aut) the climate is characterized after Köppen as a Dfb-climate, i.e. humid continental with moderate summers and cold winters. Southwest is the prevailing wind direction in Norunda.

data period 1961-1990: mean annual air temperature 5.6°C, a mean annual precipitation of 544 mm (SMHI station Uppsala)

climate diagram Norunda
Climate diagram SMHI station Uppsala.



The Norunda research site also hosts a stations for the national infrastructure ACTRIS Sweden. Additional research at the site and a next by clear-cut focuses on exchanges of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide CO2, methane CH4, water vapour H2O, and laugh gas N2O) and its driving forces in all components of a forest ecosystem. For more detailed information please contact Meelis Mölder.

blue arrowMeasured variables



Besides several small cabins for equipment Norunda has a main house and a workshop building. The main house is equipped with three bedrooms (total 5 beds), a shower/toilet bath room, and a fully equipped kitchen that is also used as office/meeting room. There is also a simple lab (separate entrance).

blue arrowFacilities



  • Lindroth, A., J. Holst, M. Heliasz et al., 2018: Effects of low thinning on carbon dioxide fluxes in a mixed hemiboreal forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 262:59-70
  • Lindroth, A., Holst, J., Linderson, M.L., Aurela, M., Biermann, T., Heliasz, M., Chi, J., Ibrom, A., Kolari, P., Klemedtsson, L., and others 2020. Effects of drought and meteorological forcing on carbon and water fluxes in Nordic forests during the dry summer of 2018. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 375(1810), p.20190516.

Norunda tower

Norunda Research station 100 m mast>


Norunda forest


office building

Norunda Research station office building>


vegetation mapAir-borne LiDAR was acquired by Kljun et al. with support from the British Natural Environment Research Council (NERC/ARSF/FSF grant EU10-01 and NERC/GEF grant 933). We thank Laura Chasmer, University of Lethbridge, for her help with processing the LiDAR data.