Norunda

On this page:
Location General Staff and Contact Data download Geology an soil
Vegetation Climate Measurements Facilities References

 

Location

The Norunda research station (60°05′N, 17°29′E, 46 m asl) is located about 30 km north of Uppsala, i.e., in the southern part of the boreal forest zone. The area is flat with small-scale variations in altitude (up to 10 m).

 

General

The site was established in 1994 and is used for studies of exchanges of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4), energy and water using micrometeorological methods (eddy covariance and gradient). A combined ICOS Atmosphere (Nor) and Ecosystem (SE-Nor) station is located at Norunda.
 

blue arrowMaps and images

blue arrowClear cut 2021

 

Staff and Contact

  • Ecosystem station PI: Meelis Mölder
  • Atmosphere station PI: Meelis Mölder
  • station manager: Irene Lehner

contact: norunda@icos-sweden.se

Norunda station team
The Norunda team (from left to right): research engineer Irene Lehner, station principal investigator Meelis Mölder, and research engineer Anders Båth.

 

Data download

Data from Norunda can be downloaded from the ICOS Carbon Portal. ICOS Level2 data from the Atmosphere Station (GHG concentrations, air temperature, wind). ICOS Level2 data from the Ecosystem Station (flux data, meteorological data, soil meteorological variables, ancillary data). ICOS Level 1 Near Realtime Data

 

Geology and Soil

The bedrock is characterised by granite and gneiss (incl. leptite) from the Svecokarelian orogen. The soils are sandy-loamy tills with a high content of stones and blocks, characterized as podzolised dystric regosols, with a thin organic layer on top. The area is rich in organic soils with surface peat cover and fens.

Because of the presence of stones and blocks the soil surface is highly uneven.

 

Vegetation

The site is dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) with a small fraction (10%) of deciduous trees, mainly birch (Betula sp.). The shrub layer is dominated by blueberry, cranberry, moss, and flowers.

The site contains stands of various age and height, but within a 1 km radius, old (110 years) and middle-aged (60-80 years) forest of about 25 m height dominate. Due to thinnings, winter storms, and bark beetle attack (effect will be seen in the 2020 and 2021 data), the plant area index got strongly reduced througout the past years.

overstory species composition (last inventory: 2018)
species trees/ha percentage Basal Area (m2/ha)
all trees 558.1 100 35.262
Picea Abies L. 302.7 54.2 13.328
Pinus sylvestris L. 205.8 36.9 20.457
Betula pubescens L. 34 6.1 0.923
Alnus glutinosa L. 13.4 2.4 0.442
Sorbus aucuparia L. 0.7 0.1 0.003

Betula pendula L.

1.4 0.3 0.11

 

main tree species characteristics (last inventory: 2018)
species DBH1 (cm) standard deviation (DBH) (cm) height (m) standard deviation (height) (m)
all trees 25.52 12.38 20.76 9.29
Picea abies L. 20.44 11.95 17.24 9.33
Pinus sylvestris L. 34.96 6.56 27.57 3.98
Betula pubescens L. 16.89 7.8 13.31 7.24

1DBH: measured at 1.3 m, minimum diameter: 5 cm

 

overstory Plant area index2
date mean PAI (m2/m2) standard deviation (m2/m2) clumping factor
2019 May 2.24 0.24 0.922
Jun 2.76 0.49 0.939
Sep 2.77 0.52 0.935
Nov 2.73 0.53 0.934
2020 Jan 1.01 0.48 0.970
Dec 2.78 0.63 0.932

2approach: 9 DHP pictures were taken in each of 4 continuous plots . LAI was calculated at each location (9 per plot) and averaged per plot. Only QC checked pictures were included. For each CP 7 or more pictures should be suitable to include plot in the aggregation.

 

Foliar analyses
parameter species 03/2018 01/2019 01/2020 03/2021
Ca (g/kg) Picea abies L. 4.766 5.818 6.159 4.54
Pinus sylvestris L. 2.632 2.944 3.026 2.50
Cu (mg/kg) Picea abies L. 1.74 1.403 1.502 1.81
Pinus sylvestris L. 3.432 2.533 3.023 2.81
Fe (mg/kg) Picea abies L. 12.424 12.553 9.918
Pinus sylvestris L. 29.781 26.061 17.781
Mg (g/kg) Picea abies L. 1.107 1.169 1.117 1.04
Pinus sylvestris L. 0.960 1.082 0.995 1.02
Mn (mg/kg) Picea abies L. 315.33 297.33 387.83 565.9
Pinus sylvestris L. 170.62 158.99 243.00 198.9
C (g/kg) Picea abies L. 506.83 511.04 505.92 671.9
Pinus sylvestris L. 524.34 532.23 523.02 694.1
N (g/kg) Picea abies L. 10.13 10.467 10.149 13.886
Pinus sylvestris L. 14.15 14.095 14.384 19.165
P (g/kg) Picea abies L. 1.326 1.353 1.210 1.42
Pinus sylvestris L. 1.467 1.558 1.531 1.59
K (g/kg) Picea abies L. 5.974 5.980 5.408 6.834
Pinus sylvestris L. 5.41 6.064 5.881 6.424
Zn (mg/kg) Picea abies L. 43.61 29.08 39.29 51.33
Pinus sylvestris L. 35.55 31.40 38.06 40.00

 

Climate

With a mean annual air temperature of 7.1°C and a mean annual precipitation of 556 mm (data period 1991-2020, SMHI station Uppsala Aut) the climate is characterized after Köppen as a Dfb-climate, i.e. humid continental with moderate summers and cold winters. Southwest is the prevailing wind direction in Norunda.

data period 1961-1990: mean annual air temperature 5.6°C, a mean annual precipitation of 544 mm (SMHI station Uppsala)

climate diagram Norunda
Climate diagram SMHI station Uppsala.

 

Measurements

Additional research at the site and a next by clear-cut focuses on exchanges of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide CO2, methane CH4, water vapour H2O, and laugh gas N2O) and its driving forces in all components of a forest ecosystem. For more detailed information please contact Meelis Mölder.

blue arrowMeasured variables

 

Facilities

Besides several small cabins for equipment Norunda has a main house and a workshop building. The main house is equipped with three bedrooms (total 5 beds), a shower/toilet bath room, and a fully equipped kitchen that is also used as office/meeting room. There is also a simple lab (separate entrance).

blue arrowFacilities

 

References

  • Lindroth, A., J. Holst, M. Heliasz et al., 2018: Effects of low thinning on carbon dioxide fluxes in a mixed hemiboreal forest. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 262:59-70
  • Lindroth, A., Holst, J., Linderson, M.L., Aurela, M., Biermann, T., Heliasz, M., Chi, J., Ibrom, A., Kolari, P., Klemedtsson, L., and others 2020. Effects of drought and meteorological forcing on carbon and water fluxes in Nordic forests during the dry summer of 2018. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 375(1810), p.20190516.

Norunda tower

 

Norunda forest

 

office building

 

vegetation map