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The Norunda research station (60°05′N, 17°29′E, 46 m asl) is located about 30 km north of Uppsala, i.e., in the southern part of the boreal forest zone. The area is flat with small-scale variations in altitude (up to 10 m).



The site was established in 1994 and is used for studies of exchanges of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4), energy and water using micrometeorological methods (eddy covariance and gradient). A combined ICOS Atmosphere (Nor) and Ecosystem (SE-Nor) station is located at Norunda.

blue arrowMaps and images

blue arrowClear cut 2021


Data download

Data from Norunda can be downloaded from the ICOS Carbon Portal. ICOS Level2 data from the Atmosphere Station (GHG concentrations, air temperature, wind). ICOS Level2 data from the Ecosystem Station (flux data, meteorological data, soil meteorological variables, ancillary data). ICOS Level 1 Near Realtime Data


Geology and Soil

The bedrock is characterised by granite and gneiss (incl. leptite) from the Svecokarelian orogen. The soils are sandy-loamy tills with a high content of stones and blocks, characterized as podzolised dystric regosols, with a thin organic layer on top. The area is rich in organic soils with surface peat cover and fens.

Because of the presence of stones and blocks the soil surface is highly uneven.



The site is dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) with a small fraction (10%) of deciduous trees, mainly birch (Betula sp.). The shrub layer is dominated by blueberry, cranberry, moss, and flowers.

The site contains stands of various age and height, but within a 1 km radius, old (110 years) and middle-aged (60-80 years) forest of about 25 m height dominate.

overstory species composition (last inventory: 2018)

species trees/ha percentage Basal Area (m2/ha)
all trees 558.1 100 35.262
Picea Abies L. 302.7 54.2 13.328
Pinus sylvestris L. 205.8 36.9 20.457
Betula pubescens L. 34 6.1 0.923
Alnus glutinosa L. 13.4 2.4 0.442
Sorbus aucuparia L. 0.7 0.1 0.003
Betula pendula L. 1.4 0.3 0.11

main tree species characteristics (last inventory: 2018)

species DBH (cm) standard deviation (DBH) (cm) height (m) standard deviation (height) (m)
all trees 25.52 12.38 20.76 9.29
Picea abies L. 20.44 11.95 17.24 9.33
Pinus sylvestris L. 34.96 6.56 27.57 3.98
Betula pubescens L. 16.89 7.8 13.31 7.24

overstory Plant area index

date mean PAI (m2/m2) standard deviation (m2/m2)
May 2019 2.24 0.24
June 2019 2.76 0.49
September 2019 2.77 0.52
November 2019 2.73 0.53

Foliar analyses

parameter species 2018 2019 2020
Ca (g/kg) Picea abies L. 4.766 5.818 6.159
Ca (g/kg) Pinus sylvestris L. 2.632 2.944 3.026
Cu (mg/kg) Picea abies L. 1.74 1.403 1.502
Cu (mg/kg) Pinus sylvestris L. 3.432 2.533 3.023
Fe (mg/kg) Picea abies L. 12.424 12.553 9.918
Fe (mg/kg) Pinus sylvestris L. 29.781 26.061 17.781
Mg (g/kg) Picea abies L. 1.107 1.169 1.117
Mg (g/kg) Pinus sylvestris L. 0.960 1.082 0.995
Mn (mg/kg) Picea abies L. 315.33 297.33 387.83
Mn (mg/kg) Pinus sylvestris L. 170.62 158.99 243.00
C (g/kg) Picea abies L. 506.83 511.04 505.92
C (g/kg) Pinus sylvestris L. 524.34 532.23 523.02
N (g/kg) Picea abies L. 10.13 10.467 10.149
N (g/kg) Pinus sylvestris L. 14.15 14.095 14.384
P (g/kg) Picea abies L. 1.326 1.353 1.210
P (g/kg) Pinus sylvestris L. 1.467 1.558 1.531
K (g/kg) Picea abies L. 5.974 5.980 5.408
K (g/kg) Pinus sylvestris L. 5.41 6.064 5.881
Zn (mg/kg) Picea abies L. 43.61 29.08 39.288
Zn (mg/kg) Pinus sylvestris L. 35.55 31.40 38.060



With a mean annual air temperature of 7.1°C and a mean annual precipitation of 556 mm (data period 1991-2020, SMHI station Uppsala Aut) the climate is characterized after Köppen as a Dfb-climate, i.e. humid continental with moderate summers and cold winters. Southwest is the prevailing wind direction in Norunda.

data period 1961-1990: mean annual air temperature 5.6°C, a mean annual precipitation of 544 mm (SMHI station Uppsala)

climate diagram Norunda


Additional research at the site and a next by clear-cut focuses on exchanges of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide CO2, methane CH4, water vapour H2O, and laugh gas N2O) and its driving forces in all components of a forest ecosystem. For more detailed information please contact Meelis Mölder.

blue arrowMeasured variables



Besides several small cabins for equipment Norunda has a main house and a workshop building. The main house is equipped with three bedrooms (total 5 beds), a shower/toilet bath room, and a fully equipped kitchen that is also used as office/meeting room. There is also a simple lab (separate entrance).

blue arrowFacilities



Meelis Mölder is the station principal investigator for the combined ICOS Ecosystem and Atmosphere station at Norunda, and can be contacted regarding its data and measurements at email: norunda(at) Irene Lehner is the station manager and can be contacted regarding station visits and set-up of field experiments. 

Norunda station team
The Norunda team (from left to right): research engineer Irene Lehner, station principal investigator Meelis Mölder, and research engineer Anders Båth.

Norunda tower


Norunda forest


office building