The Norunda research station (60°05′N, 17°29′E, 46 m asl) is located about 30 km north of Uppsala, i.e., in the southern part of the boreal forest zone. The area is flat with small-scale variations in altitude (up to 10 m).
The site was established in 1994 and is used for studies of exchanges of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4), energy and water using micrometeorological methods (eddy covariance and gradient). A combined ICOS Atmosphere (Nor) and Ecosystem (SE-Nor) station is located at Norunda.
Data from Norunda can be downloaded from the ICOS Carbon Portal. ICOS Level2 data from the Atmosphere Station (GHG concentrations, air temperature, wind). ICOS Level2 data from the Ecosystem Station (flux data, meteorological data, soil meteorological variables, ancillary data). ICOS Level 1 Near Realtime Data
Geology and Soil
The bedrock is characterised by granite and gneiss (incl. leptite) from the Svecokarelian orogen. The soils are sandy-loamy tills with a high content of stones and blocks, characterized as podzolised dystric regosols, with a thin organic layer on top. The area is rich in organic soils with surface peat cover and fens.
Because of the presence of stones and blocks the soil surface is highly uneven.
The site is dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) with a small fraction (10%) of deciduous trees, mainly birch (Betula sp.). The shrub layer is dominated by blueberry, cranberry, moss, and flowers.
The site contains stands of various age and height, but within a 1 km radius, old (110 years) and middle-aged (60-80 years) forest of about 25 m height dominate.
overstory species composition (last inventory: 2018)
|species||trees/ha||percentage||Basal Area (m2/ha)|
|Picea Abies L.||302.7||54.2||13.328|
|Pinus sylvestris L.||205.8||36.9||20.457|
|Betula pubescens L.||34||6.1||0.923|
|Alnus glutinosa L.||13.4||2.4||0.442|
|Sorbus aucuparia L.||0.7||0.1||0.003|
|Betula pendula L.||1.4||0.3||0.11|
main tree species characteristics (last inventory: 2018)
|species||DBH (cm)||standard deviation (DBH) (cm)||height (m)||standard deviation (height) (m)|
|Picea abies L.||20.44||11.95||17.24||9.33|
|Pinus sylvestris L.||34.96||6.56||27.57||3.98|
|Betula pubescens L.||16.89||7.8||13.31||7.24|
overstory Plant area index
|date||mean PAI (m2/m2)||standard deviation (m2/m2)|
|Ca (g/kg)||Picea abies L.||4.766||5.818||6.159|
|Ca (g/kg)||Pinus sylvestris L.||2.632||2.944||3.026|
|Cu (mg/kg)||Picea abies L.||1.74||1.403||1.502|
|Cu (mg/kg)||Pinus sylvestris L.||3.432||2.533||3.023|
|Fe (mg/kg)||Picea abies L.||12.424||12.553||9.918|
|Fe (mg/kg)||Pinus sylvestris L.||29.781||26.061||17.781|
|Mg (g/kg)||Picea abies L.||1.107||1.169||1.117|
|Mg (g/kg)||Pinus sylvestris L.||0.960||1.082||0.995|
|Mn (mg/kg)||Picea abies L.||315.33||297.33||387.83|
|Mn (mg/kg)||Pinus sylvestris L.||170.62||158.99||243.00|
|C (g/kg)||Picea abies L.||506.83||511.04||505.92|
|C (g/kg)||Pinus sylvestris L.||524.34||532.23||523.02|
|N (g/kg)||Picea abies L.||10.13||10.467||10.149|
|N (g/kg)||Pinus sylvestris L.||14.15||14.095||14.384|
|P (g/kg)||Picea abies L.||1.326||1.353||1.210|
|P (g/kg)||Pinus sylvestris L.||1.467||1.558||1.531|
|K (g/kg)||Picea abies L.||5.974||5.980||5.408|
|K (g/kg)||Pinus sylvestris L.||5.41||6.064||5.881|
|Zn (mg/kg)||Picea abies L.||43.61||29.08||39.288|
|Zn (mg/kg)||Pinus sylvestris L.||35.55||31.40||38.060|
With a mean annual air temperature of 7.1°C and a mean annual precipitation of 556 mm (data period 1991-2020, SMHI station Uppsala Aut) the climate is characterized after Köppen as a Dfb-climate, i.e. humid continental with moderate summers and cold winters. Southwest is the prevailing wind direction in Norunda.
data period 1961-1990: mean annual air temperature 5.6°C, a mean annual precipitation of 544 mm (SMHI station Uppsala)
Additional research at the site and a next by clear-cut focuses on exchanges of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide CO2, methane CH4, water vapour H2O, and laugh gas N2O) and its driving forces in all components of a forest ecosystem. For more detailed information please contact Meelis Mölder.
Besides several small cabins for equipment Norunda has a main house and a workshop building. The main house is equipped with three bedrooms (total 5 beds), a shower/toilet bath room, and a fully equipped kitchen that is also used as office/meeting room. There is also a simple lab (separate entrance).
Meelis Mölder is the station principal investigator for the combined ICOS Ecosystem and Atmosphere station at Norunda, and can be contacted regarding its data and measurements at email: norunda(at)icos-sweden.se. Irene Lehner is the station manager and can be contacted regarding station visits and set-up of field experiments.