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Location General Staff and Contact Data download Geology an soil
Vegetation Climate Measurements Facilities Reference



Hyltemossa is located a few kilometers south of Perstorp, in northwestern Scania (Skåne, 56°06′N, 13°25′E, 115 m asl).

blue arrowMaps and images



The site Hyltemossa was established in 2014 in a 30 year old managed spruce forest in southern Sweden. The site hosts a combined Atmosphere and Ecosystem station.


Staff and Contact

  • Ecosystem station PI: Michal Heliasz
  • Atmosphere station PI: Michal Heliasz
  • station manager: Tobias Biermann

contact: hyltemossa@icos-sweden.se


Data download

Data from Hyltemossa can be downloaded from the ICOS Carbon Portal. ICOS Level2 data from the Atmosphere Station (GHG concentrations, air temperature, wind). ICOS Level2 data from the Ecosystem Station (flux data, meteorological data, soil meteorological variables, ancillary data). ICOS Level 1 Near Realtime Data

Data is collected at 4 continuous plots around the main measurement tower.


Geology and Soil

The underlying bedrock at the site, found in a depth from 20 - 50 m, is composed mainly from acidic intrusion rock such as Granite with some limited occurrence of a younger ultrabasic rock such as Gabbro.

Quaternary deposits at the center of Hyltemossa Site are dominated by sandy till surrounded by glaciofluvial sediments. Occasionally fen peat and to a small extend crystalline rock and boulders can be found.

Soil at the site is classified as Cambisol with a shallow organic horizon, a transition to Podsol can be found in certain areas. Stones in various sizes are found frequently and in some areas influence of groundwater is obvious in 1 m depth.



The site around the tower is dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies) with a small fraction of birch trees (Betula sp.) and single occurrence of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). Understorey vegetation is sparse. The forest floor is mainly covered by a thick moss layer.

The forest is owned and managed by Gustafsborg Säteri AB (www.gustafsborg.se). The management turnover rate is 50 years, with an estimated growth of 34 m within 100 years. The site experienced storm damage in 1981, was clear-cut in 1982 and replanted in 1983 with 3300 trees per hectare. The forest was cleaned in 1998 and 2005 and thinned in 2009 and 2013. At the present time the forest stand is 19 m tall and holds around 190 m3 per hectare (excluding branches, stumps and roots).

Click here to see a satellite image time lapse 1984-2016 on Google Earth Engine.


overstory species composition (last inventory: 2018)
species trees/ha percentage Basal Area (m2/ha)
all trees 611.2 100 14.048
Picea Abies L. 597 97.7 13.775
Betula pendula Roth. 10.6 1.7 0.224
Betula pubescens Ehrh. 2.8 0.5 0.04
Pinus sylvestris L. 0.7 0.1 0.01


main tree species characteristics (last inventory: 2018)
species DBH1 (cm) standard deviation (DBH) (cm) height (m) standard deviation (height) (m)
all trees 16.15 5.65 14.56 3.96
Picea abies L. 16.18 5.65 14.61 3.92
Betula pendula Roth. 15.22 6.11 12.47 5.59
Betula pubescens Ehrh. 12.65 4.46 14.1 1.4
Pinus sylvestris L. 13.1 0 8.4 0

1DBH: measured at 1.3 m, minimum diameter: 5 cm


overstory Plant area index2
date mean PAI (m2/m2) standard deviation (m2/m2) clumping factor
2018 Jul 4.34 0.16 0.9
Sep 4.53 0.35 0.91
Oct 4.32 0.53 0.91
Nov 4.48 0.50 0.90
2019 Feb 4.38 0.54 0.905
May 4.34 0.29 0.918
Jun 4.4 0.35 0.915
Jul 4.53 0.41 0.913
Sep 4.51 0.49 0.906
Nov 4.44 0.44 0.911
Dec 4.36 0.44 0.916
2020 Apr 4.14 0.54 0.91
Jun 4.45 0.52 0.9
Sep 4.66 0.49 0.91

2approach: up to 13 DHP pictures were taken in each of 4 continuous plots . LAI was calculated at each location (9 per plot) and averaged per plot. Only QC checked pictures were included. For each CP 7 or more pictures should be suitable to include plot in aggregation.


Foliar analyses
parameter species 02/2018 01/2019 12/2019 12/2020
Ca (g/kg) Picea abies L. 3.01 2.41 5.14  
Cu (mg/kg) Picea abies L. 2.16 2.08 2.21  
Fe (mg/kg) Picea abies L. 28.06 19.87 26.11  
Mg (g/kg) Picea abies L. 1.10 1.06 1.10  
Mn (mg/kg) Picea abies L. 352.5 311.8 679.4  
C (g/kg) Picea abies L. 512.1 516.2 515.8  
N (g/kg) Picea abies L. 14.28 13.58 14.73  
P (g/kg) Picea abies L. 1.21 1.19 1.02  
K (g/kg) Picea abies L. 4.01 5.17 4.24  
Zn (mg/kg) Picea abies L. 18.64 19.10 42.4  



Data for the 1961-1990 climatological normal from the close by SMHI station Ljungbyhed characterizes the climate as a Cfb-climate (after Köppen), i.e. humid temperate with mild summers and mild winters. Mean annual air temperature for Ljungbyhed is 7°C and mean annual precipitation sums up to 830 mm. 

climate diagram Hyltemossa



The measurements are carried out either on the 150 m high tower, at the earth surface, or in a soil pit and on a tree in one of the four continuous measurement points located around the tower. All measurements are carried out within a distance of about 200 m of the tower.

blue arrowMeasured variables



Hyltemossa Station has a main house and a workshop building. The main house is equipped with a classroom, kitchen, office, four bedrooms and and two bathrooms. It provides the possibility to hold small meetings or courses for up to 14 participants and an opportunity for overnight stay for up to ten persons.

blue arrowFacilities



  • Levin, I., Karstens, U., Eritt, M., Maier, F., Arnold, S., Rzesanke, D., Hammer, S., Ramonet, M., Vitková, G., Conil, S., and others 2020. A dedicated flask sampling strategy developed for Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) stations based on CO 2 and CO measurements and Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) footprint modelling. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 20(18), p.11161–11180.
  • Lindroth, A., Holst, J., Linderson, M.L., Aurela, M., Biermann, T., Heliasz, M., Chi, J., Ibrom, A., Kolari, P., Klemedtsson, L., and others 2020. Effects of drought and meteorological forcing on carbon and water fluxes in Nordic forests during the dry summer of 2018. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 375(1810), p.20190516.
  • Yver-Kwok, C., Philippon, C., Bergamaschi, P., Biermann, T., Calzolari, F., Chen, H., Conil, S., Cristofanelli, P., Delmotte, M., Hatakka, J., and others 2021. Evaluation and optimization of ICOS atmosphere station data as part of the labeling process. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 14(1), p.89–116.

Hyltemossa surroundings. Photo: Tobias Biermann


Soil profile


Station building Hyltemossa



HTM footprint
Footprint area for August 2014 at Hyltemossa. Each contour line adds 10% contribution starting at the tower (red dot); the background map is an illustration of the vegetation height; Footprint model FFP (Kljun et al. 2015).